Category Archive for 'Cadmus – Vol 1 – Issue 4'

Cadmus – Volume I, Issue 4 – April 2012 – ISSN 2038-5242

Content Summary

Editorial: Human Capital

Great Transformations
The Great Divorce: Finance and Economy
Evolution from Violence to Law to Social Justice
Immediate Solution for the Greek Financial Crisis
Economic Crisis & the Science of Economics


Original Thinking
Ashok Natarajan

Inclusive Growth: Why is it important for developing Asia?
Jesus Felipe

From Limits to Growth to Limitless Growth
Garry Jacobs & Ivo Šlaus

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Gender Perspectives on Climate Change & Human Security in India: An Analysis of National Missions on Climate Change

Women play a crucial role in many activities essential for coping with climate change. Indian women appear to be more vulnerable than men to differential impacts of climate change because they share most of the household managing responsibilities but have limited access to participation in decision making and governance. Most of the policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation do not specifically address the vulnerability of women. The National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), formulated to shape future discourse of climate change adaptation and development, recognizes the differential impacts of climate change on society, but incorporates merely a few gender specific measures. The paper suggests gender specific measures for each mission of the NAPCC to make the adaptation and development process more inclusive and sustainable in India. Read More

Entropy and Economics

In this essay, human society is regarded as a “superorganism”, analogous to colonies of social insects. The digestive system of the human superorganism is the global economy, which ingests both free energy and resources, and later excretes them in a degraded form. This process involves an increase in entropy. Early in the 20th century, both Frederick Soddy and Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen discussed the relationship between entropy and economics. Soddy called for an index system to regulate the money supply and a reform of the fractional reserve banking system, while Georgescu-Roegen pointed to the need for Ecological Economics, a steady-state economy, and population stabilization. As we reach the end of the fossil fuel era and as industrial growth falters, massive unemployment can only be avoided by responsible governmental action. The necessary steps include shifting labor to projects needed for a sustainable economy, dividing the available work fairly among those seeking employment, and reforming the practices of the financial sector. Read More

Research Integrity: A Vital Condition for Science & Scholarship

Research misconduct is a serious threat to science and to society. A variety of Codes of Conduct for research integrity have been developed in Europe by universities, academies of sciences and funding organisations, but this has resulted in a patchwork of codes and procedures, which hampers international collaborative research. ALLEA and ESF have taken the initiative to achieve more international harmonisation by developing a European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity. This paper presents a description of this Code, including the principles of scientific integrity, the violations of these principles, suggestions for good practices, and recommendations on how to deal with allegations of misconduct. This Code is a canon for self-regulation. Hopefully, it will establish standards across Europe that can eventually be held valid and implemented world-wide.

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Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws are underway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequate or obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recent books, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1) International Law includes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security, pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2) Human Rights encompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some states violate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity, and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3) Environment/Resources covers growth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future, laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books on prospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance; 4) Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs, books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age, seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectual property questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need for updated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timely analysis of the many books on changes in law. Read More

New Paradigm for Global Rule of Law

Law is both a condition and a consequence of social development, an outcome of the broader social process, a form of social organization which channels social energies based on the relative strength of past practice and precedent, the present balance of power and emerging social values. Values are the bedrock of social process and the driving force for social activism. Historically, law evolves as a mechanism for conflict avoidance and resolution founded on the practical management of conflict and higher values, made possible by the implicit acceptance and internalization of the authority component of collective expectations. Established law acts as a conservative force of the status quo subject to continuous pressure to evolve from the changing public conscience and social values. Lasswell’s comprehensive model of social process highlights the contribution of multiple participants to the evolution of law at the macro and micro level, including the role of individual value demands and the potential assertive power of the human community as a whole. The article explores the potential role of non-states in changing international law regarding the legality of nuclear weapons. An appreciation of the integral relationship between law, politics and society is essential to a fuller understanding of social, power and legal processes and the goal of universalizing peace and human dignity. Read More

From European Union to World Union: Building Effective and Democratic Global Governance – ACTION for a World Community for Food Reserves

Sovereignty-sharing has placed European countries in a position to resolve their common problems through law, not war. As a result, the EU member states now live in peace together and take peace, justice and order for granted. The system of global governance is dysfunctional – some states are failing and the Security Council lacks legitimacy. Humanity does not have a mechanism to resolve its global problems through law, making it difficult – if not impossible – to resolve global problems such as famine, hunger, climate change, war and terrorism, nuclear proliferation, regulation of corporations – including banks, destruction of fish stocks, and population. Sharing of sovereignty at the global level can address these problems, starting in the area of food security, then proceeding to climate management and other fields. Shared sovereignty can eliminate famine and hunger globally. Read More

Social Evolution, Global Governance and a World Parliament

This article describes the relevance of a world parliament in the context of long-term social evolution and the crisis of global governance. It is argued that due to the development of weapons of mass destruction and complex interdependency, war has ceased to be a driver of socio-evolutionary consolidation of power at the world-system level. At the same time, there is an increasingly urgent need for global governance in spheres such as climate change mitigation or economics and finances. The author looks at how the established and now dysfunctional pattern of evolutionary change can be overcome and identifies the institution of a world parliament as an important political and psychological aspect of the evolving collective. Read More

Simulated ICJ Judgment: Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons

The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential cataclysmic impact of nuclear war on climate change, the multiplication of nuclear-weapon-free zones as evidence of a widespread rejection, mounting evidence regarding the physical and psychological harm, and unwillingness of the nuclear weapons states to fulfill their obligations under the NPT. This article challenges the notion that a few sovereign states should be the sole arbiters of international law and affirms the legitimate claim of the global community of protection from the existential threat posed by nuclear weapons. The use or threat of use undermines foundational values of the international legal system and the specific rules of self-defense and humanitarian law. The contribution seeks to give an accentuated role for the explicit use of the fundamental values of international legal order, in crafting an innovative methodology for the formulation of the judgment. The very existence of these weapons undermines the rights of all of humanity. The ICJ should be moved to categorically declare the use and possession of nuclear weapons a crime against humanity. Read More

Flaws in the Concept of Nuclear Deterrence

The concept of nuclear deterrence is seriously flawed, and it violates the fundamental ethical principles of all major religions. Besides being morally unacceptable, nuclear weapons are also illegal according to a historic 1996 decision of the International Court of Justice, a ruling that reflects the opinion of the vast majority of the worldʼs peoples. Even a small nuclear war would be an ecological catastrophe, not only killing civilian populations indiscriminately in both belligerent and neutral countries, but also severely damaging global agriculture and making large areas of the earth permanently uninhabitable through radioactive contamination. The danger of accidental nuclear war continues to be very great today, and the danger of nuclear terrorism is increasing. In this perilous situation, it is necessary for the nuclear nations to acknowledge that the concept of deterrence has been a mistake, which is threatening the lives of all human beings as well as threatening devastation of the biosphere. Acknowledging that the policy of nuclear deterrence has been a grave error can reduce risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. Read More

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